A diet plan for acute renal failure is important for patients suffering from this condition. Take a look at this diet plan to learn which foods to avoid and which to include in your diet. Acute renal failure is a sudden and abrupt decrease in the glomerular filtration rate (GFR), or the amount of fluid filtered from your body by your kidneys, which inevitably results in a buildup of nitrogen waste products (urea) in the blood. The condition is also known as acute kidney injury (AKI).
Acute kidney failure
Kidney biopsyOpen pop-up dialog box
Your doctor may advise specific tests and procedures to confirm your diagnosis if your signs and symptoms point to acute renal failure. These may consist of:
- Urine output measurements. Measuring how much you urinate in 24 hours may help your doctor determine the cause of your kidney failure.
- Urine tests. Urinalysis, which involves analyzing a sample of your urine, may show anomalies that point to kidney failure.
- Blood tests. Your blood sample may show rapidly increasing levels of urea and creatinine, two markers of renal function.
- Imaging tests. Your doctor may use imaging tests like ultrasound and computed tomography to help them see your kidneys.
- Removing a sample of kidney tissue for testing. Your doctor may occasionally advise a kidney biopsy to take a tiny sample of kidney tissue for laboratory analysis. To take the sample, your doctor uses a needle to penetrate your skin and enter your kidney.
A hospital stay is frequently necessary for acute renal failure treatment. Acute renal failure patients are typically already hospitalized. The cause of your acute renal failure and the speed at which your kidneys recover will determine how long you’ll need to stay in the hospital.
You might be able to heal at home in some circumstances.
Treating the underlying cause of your kidney injury
Finding the illness or injury that caused the kidney damage in the first place is the first step in treating acute renal failure. Your options for treatment will depend on the cause of your renal failure.
Treating complications until your kidneys recover
Additionally, your doctor will take steps to avoid problems and give your kidneys time to recover. Among the therapies that lessen problems are:
- Treatments to balance the amount of fluids in your blood.Your doctor could advise intravenous (IV) fluids if your acute kidney failure is brought on by a deficiency of fluid in your blood. Other times, acute renal failure might result in you having too much fluid, which will cause your arms and legs to bulge. Your doctor may prescribe drugs (diuretics) in certain circumstances to encourage your body to flush out surplus fluids.
- Medications to control blood potassium. Your doctor may advise calcium, glucose, or sodium polystyrene sulfonate (Kionex) to avoid the buildup of high levels of potassium in your blood if your kidneys aren’t effectively filtering potassium from your blood. Muscle weakness and dangerously irregular heartbeats (arrhythmias) can both result from an excess of potassium in the blood.
- Medications to restore blood calcium levels.Your doctor might advise a calcium infusion if the calcium levels in your blood become too low.
- Dialysis to remove toxins from your blood. If toxins accumulate in your blood, you could require short-term hemodialysis, often known as dialysis, to assist your body rid itself of toxins and extra fluids while your kidneys recover. Your body may be able to lose extra potassium with the aid of dialysis. A machine that filters waste through an artificial kidney (dialyzer) pumps blood out of your body during dialysis. Your body then receives the blood back.
Lifestyle and home remedies
Your doctor could prescribe a particular diet to assist strengthen your kidneys and lessen the amount of work they need to do as you recover from acute renal failure. Your doctor might recommend a nutritionist who can assess your current diet and give recommendations on how to make it less taxing on your kidneys.
Depending on your situation, your dietitian may recommend that you:
- Choose lower potassium foods. Your nutritionist could advise you to select foods with less potassium. Bananas, oranges, potatoes, spinach, and tomatoes are examples of foods high in potassium. Foods deficient in potassium include strawberries, apples, grapes, cauliflower, and peppers.
- Avoid products with added salt.Reduce your daily intake of sodium by staying away from processed foods that have added salt, such as frozen dinners, canned soups, and fast food. Salty snack foods, canned veggies, and processed meats and cheeses are examples of additional salt-containing foods.
- Limit phosphorus. Foods including whole-grain bread, oats, bran cereals, dark-colored sodas, nuts, and peanut butter contain the mineral phosphorus. Blood phosphorus levels that are too high might weaken bones and irritate skin. Your dietician can provide you with detailed instructions on how to restrict phosphorus in your individual circumstance.
You might no longer require a specific diet when your kidneys heal, though a nutritious diet is still crucial.
Preparing for your appointment
When acute renal failure occurs, the majority of patients are already in the hospital. Bring up your concerns with your doctor or nurse if you or a loved one starts to exhibit renal failure signs and symptoms.
Make an appointment with your family doctor or general practitioner if you have renal failure symptoms but are not hospitalized. You can be sent to a physician who specializes in renal disease if your doctor feels you have kidney issues (nephrologist).
Diet chart for kidney and Dialysis patients
In addition to helping manage different medical conditions, healthy eating is essential for disease prevention.
The most important aspect in preserving general health is thought to be diet. A diet chart for kidney patients is a useful resource that offers important details about the foods to include and avoid.
A basic diet plan cannot meet the needs of every renal ailment, however, as different kidney disorders require different treatments.
Here are a few dietary considerations to maintain the sick kidneys functioning normally.
For those whose kidney function has been compromised, a kidney or renal diet is crucial. Increased waste in the blood is a result of kidney disease. This results from the kidneys’ incapacity to filter or eliminate waste.
Electrolyte levels in a patient can suffer from waste in the blood. Additionally, a renal diet may support kidney health and slow the development of kidney failure.
It is essential for a patient with kidney disease to speak with a renal dietician in order to create a diet that is customized to the patient’s needs because every person’s body and metabolism are different.
Foods for Kidney patients
The vegetable cauliflower is regarded as very adaptable. Cauliflower’s reduced sodium and potassium content support the body’s fluid equilibrium.
This vegetable is a strong antioxidant that aids in the correct functioning of the kidneys as well as purifying the kidney by eliminating impurities.
- Phosphorus – 47.33 mg
- Potassium – 329 mg
- Sodium – 30.72 mg
Particularly cruciferous vegetables are good for your kidneys. Vitamins C, K, B6, folic acid, and fiber are abundant in cabbage.
Due of its low potassium concentration, it is a cheap alternative for the kidney diet. An good addition to the diet for dialysis patients is raw cabbage.
- Phosphorus – 30.15 mg
- Potassium – 233 mg
- Sodium – 14.98 mg
A fruit with low potassium content is blueberries. They are a great option for a kidney-friendly diet because they are also reasonably low in salt and phosphorus.
When a patient has one of the following renal problems, they are safe to eat this fruit.
- Kidney stones
- Hemodialysis for ESRD/CKD
- Peritoneal Dialysis/Nocturnal Hemodialysis
- Phosphorus – 12 mg
- Potassium – 77 mg
- Sodium – 1 mg
Egg yolks are nutrient-rich, but they are also high in phosphorus. For kidney sufferers, egg whites are therefore preferred over egg yolks. A high-quality, kidney-friendly source of protein is egg whites.
They are also a great option for dialysis patients who need to minimize their phosphorus intake yet have higher protein requirements.
- Phosphorus – 5 mg
- Potassium – 163 mg
- Sodium – 166 mg
Garlic has powerful anti-inflammatory and antioxidant qualities, making it a great nutritious food element for use in a “Food as Medicine” strategy for treating chronic kidney disease, claims an Elsevier study (CKD).
- Phosphorus – 116 mg
- Potassium – 453 mg
- Sodium – 10.56 mg
Given their high protein content, fish is advised in a renal diet. Fish high in omega-3 fatty acids can aid in reducing triglyceride levels in the kidneys, heart, and blood vessels.
Omega-3 fatty acids also help persons with renal disease have decreased blood pressure.
- Phosphorus – 211 mg
- Potassium – 345 mg
- Sodium – 20.25 mg
People with higher creatinine levels and impaired renal function may benefit from onions’ high vitamin C, calcium, and phosphorus content.
Additionally, prostaglandin, which naturally reduces blood viscosity, is found in onions. Additionally, it helps to control excessive blood pressure, which slows the development of renal disease.
Additionally, onions contain the anti-oxidant quercetin, which aids in detoxifying and guards against free radical damage to the kidneys. Onion is one item should be consumed while recuperating from a renal ailment.
- Phosphorus – 39.65 mg
- Potassium – 160 mg
- Sodium – 4.06 mg
Diet chart for kidney patients
The menu listed below is merely an example for a renal sufferer. However, speaking with a nutritionist is required to receive a customized meal plan based on a patient’s anthropometric measurements and illness status.
|Breakfast||Broken wheat upma Egg whiteChutney of choice||200 g2 Nos2 – 3 Tsp|
|Mid-morning||Fruit of choice (Preferably Apple, Grapes, Pear)||100 g|
|Lunch||Chapathi + RiceLeached vegetablesRasam (less tomato)Vegetable gravy(Note: No papad/pickle)||2 Nos + 200 g200 g100 ml50 g|
|Snacks||Millet BiscuitsTea/Coffee||2 Nos100 ml|
|Dinner||Rava Idly/ DosaOnion Chutney||3 Nos3 Tsp|
How can I follow a kidney-friendly eating plan?
Monitoring the consumption of macronutrients like carbs, protein, and fat as well as micronutrients like phosphorus, salt, and potassium will help you create a diet plan that is friendly to your kidneys. Following the nutrient guideline helps stop the progression of disease.
Protein and renal health are frequently linked. Normally, when protein is consumed, waste products are created and subsequently filtered by the nephrons of the kidney.
Urine is then produced from the waste. Damaged kidneys are unable to eliminate protein waste, which causes blood levels to rise.
Because the amount of protein depends on the stage of the disease, it might be challenging for individuals with chronic renal disease to consume it.
It is crucial to ingest the recommended amount of protein for the particular stage of the disease because protein is necessary for tissue upkeep and other biological processes.
The following protein recommendations are made for various renal diseases in accordance with NKF-DOQI guidelines:
- Chronic Kidney Disease – 0.6–0.8 g/kg/day
- Chronic renal failure without dialysis – 0.60 g/kg/day, increase to 0.75 g/kg/day if not tolerated
- Hemodialysis – 1.2 g/kg/day
- Chronic peritoneal dialysis – 1.2-1.3 g/kg/day
- Kidney stones – 0.8-1.0 g/kg/day (PubMed)
To preserve the kidney and the heart, it is essential to pick healthy, unsaturated fats over saturated and trans fats.
According to uptodate.com, 10% of total fat should be saturated fat and 30% of total calories must come from fat.
Obesity and insulin resistance have been linked to high carbohydrate diets. A low-carbohydrate diet may assist control renal function given how diabetes and obesity are associated to an increased risk of CKD.
However, more studies are required to show how specifically carbs affect renal function.
Potassium intake should be restricted in people with chronic kidney disease because their kidneys cannot adequately process potassium, leading it to build up in the blood. Medication used to treat kidney illness has the potential to increase potassium levels.
In a potassium-restricted diet, the American Kidney Foundation recommends 2000 mg of potassium per day.
It has been established that excessive phosphorus harms the kidneys and directly results in a decline in renal function. The likelihood of renal failure increases because of this function decrease.
Phosphorus is difficult for people with Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) to remove. Too much phosphorus in the body can be harmful. The body reacts to too much of this mineral by removing calcium from the bones and weakening them.
The recommended daily intake of phosphorus for kidney patients is 800 mg. People who lower their phosphorus intake below their current intake may also experience health benefits.
Healthy kidneys eliminate extra salt in the urine. Sodium can build up when kidney illness affects the body’s ability to excrete it.
Excess sodium can cause the body to retain fluid, which can cause swelling in the hands, abdomen, legs, feet, ankles, and face. Additionally, it results in weight gain, breathlessness, and high blood pressure.
To maintain healthy blood pressure and prevent extra fluid from building up in the body and causing swelling, patients with hypertension and chronic kidney disease (CKD) must restrict their intake of salt and sodium.
The National Kidney Foundation Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (NKF KDOQI) recommendations state that non-dialysis CKD patients should consume less than 2.3 g of sodium per day.
Hemodialysis patients are advised by the NKF KDOQI to take no more than 2 g of sodium per day.
Proper diet plan for kidney patients
Adults should take about 35 kcal/kg/day to keep protein for tissue maintenance and repair. A diet plan should supply enough calories for the individual.
To normalize energy requirements in patients who are severely overweight, some energy changes should be done.
Reduced risk of infection
A healthy diet should lower the risk of infection for kidney patients.
People with renal illness may be more prone to infection as a result of coexisting disorders like diabetes, inadequate protein and calorie intake, and access sites like dialysis that are prone to infection.
The body’s immune system is strengthened and infections are prevented by eating adequate calories, protein, and other nutrients.
Healthier body weight
An individual’s overall health is based on their body weight. A healthy weight can be maintained through food, which can assist patients with kidney disease manage their symptoms and prevent subsequent health issues.
When extra weight is eliminated, blood pressure and blood sugar levels frequently get better. This could delay or stop additional renal damage.
People can avoid undernourishment, stop muscle loss, and gain energy for daily tasks by increasing the number of calories in their diet.
Decreased risk of disease progression
A healthy diet that is friendly to the kidneys lowers the chance of disease progression by boosting immunity with nutrient-rich foods. The balance of nutrients, such as protein, potassium, sodium, and phosphorus, is important for kidney health.
Foods with less sodium (salt)
Although the body needs sodium for some processes, too much of the mineral can be hazardous for those who have kidney disease because their kidneys are unable to excrete excess salt and fluid. As a result, the body begins to fill up with fluid.
So it’s best to choose foods with little salt or sodium in them. By, this is made possible
- Using herbs and spices for flavour while cooking
- Choosing fresh fruits or vegetables instead of canned vegetables
- Requesting the restaurant chef not to add salt to the food ordered.
Do’s And Don’ts for kidney patients
Limit fluid intake
People with advanced CKD and those receiving dialysis must limit their fluid intake since their kidneys are unable to filter extra fluid. However, those who have kidney stones should drink enough fluids.
Keep a food diary
A food diary aids in tracking the types and amounts of food and beverages a patient consumes. A medical professional can utilize this to assess the food plan and make changes if necessary.
Choose low potassium foods.
The renal diet might include low-potassium fruits and vegetables like apples, grapes, beans, cruciferous vegetables, onion, and radish. To lower potassium levels, some vegetables can also be leached before use.
Avoid sodium-rich foods
A kidney patient should avoid high sodium foods including salt, seasoning, sauce, chips, pickles, fast food, processed and canned foods, as well as meals containing preservatives.
Avoid foods rich in phosphorus
Dairy products, lentils, almonds, oats, processed meats, and beverages are foods high in phosphorus that should be avoided.
Avoid high potassium foods that cannot be leached.
Foods high in potassium should be limited in a renal diet. Fruits and a few other components cannot be leached, despite some veggies being able to. Avoiding these foods is advised.
Banana, avocado, potato, and coconut water are examples of foods high in potassium that should be avoided.
Avoid high sugar foods
A PubMed article claims that eating sugar increases the risk of developing CKD. So it’s best to stay away from sweets, sugary foods, and snacks high in sodium and potassium.
Foods to include in the diet
Cereal & cereal products
- Parboiled rice
- Brown rice
- Unpolished rice
Pulses & legumes
- Bengal gram dhal
- Toor dhal
Fruits & vegetables
Kidney stones, acute kidney injury (AKI), chronic kidney disease (CKD), end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and kidney cancer are the most prevalent kidney diseases.
A personalized diet plan is recommended for any patient because the nutrient requirements and restrictions differ depending on the kind of kidney disease.
Without a sound food strategy, the illness could worsen and lead to renal failure. For the patient to make appropriate ordering-out decisions, they must be aware of the items that should be consumed and those that should be avoided.
To obtain the proper dosage of nutrients, a physician or dietitian consultation is required.
A DaVita Dietitian’s Top 15 Healthy Foods for People with Kidney Disease
Chronic diseases, inflammation, and specific whole foods are all being linked more and more by researchers. Unwanted fatty acid oxidation is a situation that develops when the oxygen in your body combines with the lipids in your blood and cells. Although the body uses oxidation to produce energy and carry out many other chemical processes, too much oxidation of lipids and cholesterol can result in the generation of “free radicals” that can harm your genes, proteins, and cell membranes. Oxidative damage has been connected to heart disease, cancer, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and other chronic and degenerative illnesses.
Antioxidant-rich foods can assist in scavenging free radicals and defending the body. People on dialysis or those with chronic renal illness should choose the kidney diet since it contains many of the nutrients that ward off oxidation (CKD). People with renal illness should include foods strong in antioxidants in their diets and work with a kidney dietician since they suffer increased inflammation and are at a higher risk for cardiovascular disease.
Top Healthy Foods for People with Kidney Disease
1. Red bell peppers
1/2 cup serving red bell pepper = 1 mg sodium, 88 mg potassium, 10 mg phosphorus
Red bell peppers are excellent for the kidney diet for a number of reasons, not the least of which is their low potassium content and great flavor. In addition to being delicious, these vegetables are a great source of fiber, vitamins B6, C, and A. Because they contain lycopene, an antioxidant that helps prevent some cancers, red bell peppers are healthy for you.
Red bell peppers can be used to tuna or chicken salad or eaten raw with a dip as a snack or an appetizer. Additionally, you can cut peppers for an omelet, add them to kabobs on the grill, roast peppers as a topping for sandwiches or lettuce salads, stuff peppers with ground beef or turkey and bake them as a main meal.
1/2 cup serving green cabbage = 6 mg sodium, 60 mg potassium, 9 mg phosphorus
Cabbage, a cruciferous vegetable, is bursting with phytochemicals, chemical substances found in fruits or vegetables that disperse free radicals before they can do harm. Numerous phytochemicals are also known to support cardiovascular health and protect cells from cellular deterioration that could cause cancer.
Cabbage is a good source of fiber, vitamins K, C, and B6, as well as the B vitamins B6 and folic acid. It’s an inexpensive addition to the kidney diet because it’s low in potassium and cost.
When used as coleslaw or as a garnish for fish tacos, raw cabbage is a fantastic addition to the dialysis diet. It can be steamed, microwaved, boiled, or served as a side dish with butter, cream cheese, pepper, or caraway seeds. If you’re feeling sophisticated, you can stuff a cabbage with ground pork and bake it for a tasty meal loaded with nutrients. Turkey-filled cabbage rolls make a terrific appetizer.
1/2 cup serving boiled cauliflower = 9 mg sodium, 88 mg potassium, 20 mg phosphorus
Cauliflower, another cruciferous vegetable, is rich in vitamin C and a good source of fiber and folate. Indoles, glucosinolates, and thiocyanates are also abundant in it; these molecules aid the liver in neutralizing poisons that can harm DNA and cell membranes.
Serve it raw with a dip or steamed or boiled and seasoned with spices like turmeric, curry powder, pepper, and herb seasonings. You may also add it to a salad. A non-dairy white sauce can also be prepared, poured over the cauliflower, and baked until soft. Cauliflower can be used with pasta or even mashed to substitute for mashed potatoes in a dialysis diet.
1 clove garlic = 1 mg sodium, 12 mg potassium, 4 mg phosphorus
Garlic lowers cholesterol, soothes inflammation, and contains antibacterial qualities that help prevent plaque from accumulating on teeth.
Add it to pasta, vegetable, or meat recipes whether you buy it fresh, in a bottle, minced, or powdered. A head of roasted garlic can also be smeared on bread. In the dialysis diet, garlic powder works well in place of garlic salt since it adds a delightful flavor.
1/2 cup serving onion = 3 mg sodium, 116 mg potassium, 3 mg phosphorus
The sulfur compounds in onions, an Allium family member and a staple ingredient in many cooked meals, are what give them their strong aroma. Onions are high in flavonoids, including quercetin, a potent antioxidant that may lower heart disease and defend against many malignancies, in addition to making some individuals cry. Onions are a high source of chromium, a mineral that aids in the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins, and they are low in potassium.
Use several types of onions, such as white, brown, red, and others. Onions can be eaten raw on salads, burgers, and sandwiches or cooked and used as a caramelized topping. Try creating your own onion rings if you have an air fryer. When making dishes like Italian Beef with Peppers and Onions, add onions.
1 medium apple with skin = 0 sodium, 158 mg potassium, 10 mg phosphorus
Apples may lower cholesterol, decrease constipation, prevent heart disease, and lower the risk of developing cancer. Apples are high in fiber and anti-inflammatory ingredients, which is good news for kidney disease sufferers who already make a lot of doctor’s appointments.
A unique Apple Onion Omelet can be created with this kidney diet winner and the prior healthy food, onions. Apples have several uses. They can be consumed raw, roasted, stewed, made into apple sauce, or turned into apple juice or apple cider.
1/2 cup serving cranberry juice cocktail = 3 mg sodium, 22 mg potassium, 3 mg phosphorus
1/4 cup serving cranberry sauce = 35 mg sodium, 17 mg potassium, 6 mg phosphorus
1/2 cup serving dried cranberries = 2 mg sodium, 24 mg potassium and 5 mg phosphorus
By preventing bacteria from adhering to the bladder wall, these tart, delicious berries may guard against bladder infections. Cranberries may similarly shield the stomach from germs that cause ulcers and enhance the balance of beneficial gut bacteria, supporting GI health. Additionally demonstrated to aid in the prevention of both cancer and heart disease is cranberries.
The most popular cranberry products are cranberry sauce and cranberry juice. Dried cranberries can also be eaten as a snack or added to salads.
1/2 cup serving fresh blueberries = 4 mg sodium, 65 mg potassium, 7 mg phosphorus
The antioxidant phytonutrients that give blueberries their blue color are known as “anthocyanidins,” and they are brimming with anti-inflammatory natural substances. Blueberries are a wonderful source of vitamin C, fiber, and manganese, which helps to maintain the health of your bones. They might also shield the brain from some of aging’s consequences. Blueberries and other berries include antioxidants that may help reduce bone loss.
Try blueberries in cereal or a fruit smoothie with whipped topping after purchasing them fresh, frozen, or dried. Additionally, blueberry juice is an option.
1/2 cup serving raspberries = 0 mg sodium, 93 mg potassium, 7 mg phosphorus
Raspberries are rich in ellagic acid, a phytonutrient that helps the body combat free radicals and stop cell damage. Additionally, they contain the antioxidant flavonoids known as “anthocyanins,” which give them their red hue. Raspberries, a good source of manganese, vitamin C, fiber, and folate, a B vitamin, may have qualities that prevent the development of tumors and the growth of cancer cells.
Raspberries can be mixed into cereal, pureed and sweetened to create a dessert sauce, or blended into vinaigrette dressing.
1/2 cup serving (5 medium) fresh strawberries = 1 mg sodium, 120 mg potassium, 13 mg phosphorus
Anthocyanins and ellagitannins, two different forms of phenols, are abundant in strawberries. Strawberries’ red hue is caused by anthocyananins, potent antioxidants that assist safeguard bodily cell structures and stop oxidative damage. Strawberries are a fantastic source of fiber, vitamin C, manganese, and other micronutrients. In addition to having anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory properties, they might offer cardiac protection.
Strawberries go well with cereal, smoothies, and salads. They can also be sliced fresh and served with whipped topping. You can purée and sweeten strawberries to serve as a dessert, or you can prepare strawberry pudding or sorbet.
What foods should you avoid if you have kidney problems?
Kidney patients must avoid foods rich in sodium, potassium and phosphorus. Some of these include dried fruits, bananas, potatoes, avocado, spinach, nuts and dairy.
What are the ten best foods for kidney disease?
Ten superfoods for kidneys include cabbage, cauliflower, egg whites, onion, garlic, grapes, apples, berries, olive oil and red bell pepper.
Is chapathi good for kidney patients?
Yes, chapathi can be consumed by kidney patients.
Is curd good for kidney disease?
Curd is not a good choice for kidney patients due to its high protein, potassium and phosphorus content. A patient with kidney disease should avoid eating curd.
Kidney patients should also avoid curd because it exacerbates kidney damage.