The food with L serine can help to boost your immune system, muscle building and also provide the best nutrition value. It is made of natural ingredients that are 100% safe for human consumption. It contains high quality of protein, minerals, vitamins and amino acids. There are no preservatives at all that may cause health issues such as allergies and other side effects.
Food With L Serine
Many foods contain L-serine, with some foods having higher concentrations. High-protein foods, including eggs, milk, cheese, a wide variety of seeds, pork, beef, chicken, fish and some spices, provide the highest concentration of L-serine in foods.
L-Serine Content in Foods3
(per 100 grams)
|1. Egg: white, dried, stabilized, glucose reduced||6.16|
|2. Soy protein isolate||4.59|
|3. Seaweed (spirulina), dried||2.99|
|4. Gelatins, dry powder, unsweetened||2.60|
|5. Fish: cod (Atlantic), dried and salted||2.56|
|6. Parmesan cheese, shredded||2.40|
|7. Soybeans, mature seeds, raw||2.35|
|8. Tofu, dried-frozen (koyadofu)||2.25|
|9. Milk: dry, (nonfat) regular, no added vitamin A/D||1.96|
|10. Hemp seeds, hulled||1.71|
|11. Pumpkin and squash seed kernels, dried||1.67|
|12. Beef: top round roast, boneless, cooked, roasted||1.52|
|13. Peanut butter (smooth style), with salt||1.48|
|14. Chicken: broilers or fryers, giblets, cooked, fried||1.43|
|15. Lima beans: large, mature seeds, raw||1.42|
|16. Mozzarella cheese, part skim milk||1.41|
|17. Cheddar cheese, (sharp) sliced||1.39|
|18. Cereals (ready-to-eat): wheat germ, toasted, plain||1.38|
|19. Pork: cured, bacon, cooked, baked||1.35|
|20. Mozzarella cheese (low moisture), part-skim||1.35|
|21. Pistachio nuts, dry roasted||1.3|
|22. Egg: yolk, raw, fresh||1.32|
|23. Lamb: cooked, braised||1.31|
|24. Pistachio nuts, raw||1.28|
|25. Kidney beans: all types, mature seeds, raw||1.28|
|26. Chicken: drumstick, rotisserie, cooked||1.2|
|27. Peanuts: all types, raw||1.27|
|28. Turkey: breast, meat only, cooked, roasted||1.24|
L-serine supplements can provide high concentrations of L-serine to help increase daily intake levels. Swanson AjiPure® L-Serine contains 500 mg of high-purity, USP-grade AjiPure® L-Serine per veggie capsule serving. This pharmaceutical-grade L-serine is produced in a fermentation process by the amino experts at Japan’s Ajinomoto, Amino Science LLC, the world leader in pharmaceutical-grade amino acids.
What Are the Benefits of L-Serine?
Its benefits throughout the human body are many and wide-ranging, but it’s known to play an especially important role in helping promote and maintain neurological health as well as protein fatty acid synthesis, RNA and DNA methylation, nervous system function, muscle growth, healthy metabolism, cell proliferation and much more.1
What Do the Scientists Say About L-Serine?
Emerging research on L-serine suggests that there are potentially new and exciting applications for this powerful amino acid. Research by ethnobotanist Paul Cox, who studies the way indigenous peoples use plants in their customs and diet, along with his researchers at the nonprofit Brain Chemistry Labs, have studied how L-serine may be neuroprotective and play an important role in nervous system health.2 Research is ongoing, with recent findings showing a need for more studies on the effects L-serine in the diet may have for the body and nervous system function.
What is serine
Serine is a nonessential amino acid since it is synthesized in your body from other metabolites, including glycine. Serine can also be derived from your diet and the degradation of protein and/or phospholipids 1). Serine was first obtained from silk protein, a particularly rich source. Its name is derived from the Latin for silk, sericum. Only the L-stereoisomer (L-serine) appears naturally in proteins. L-serine is required to synthesize membrane lipids such as phosphatidylserine and sphingolipids 2). Serine is highly concentrated in all cell membranes. Unlike other amino acids, L-serine is used directly for the synthesis of phosphatidylserine and ceramide, the hydrophobic moiety of sphingolipids. The latter sphingolipids act as important mediators of the signaling cascades involved in various cellular functions, such as apoptosis, proliferation, and the stress response 3). The first step of sphingolipid synthesis is the condensation of L-serine and palmitoyl-CoA catalyzed by serine palmitoyltransferase, which is a rate-limiting enzyme in the sphingolipid synthetic pathway (Figure 2A) 4). Like all the amino acid building blocks of protein and peptides, serine can become essential under certain conditions, and is thus important in maintaining health and preventing disease. Low-average concentration of serine compared to other amino acids is found in muscle. L-Serine may be derived from four possible sources: dietary intake; biosynthesis from the glycolytic intermediate 3-phosphoglycerate; from glycine ; and by protein and phospholipid degradation 5). Little data is available on the relative contributions of each of these four sources of L-serine to serine homoeostasis. It is very likely that the predominant source of L-serine will be very different in different tissues and during different stages of human development.
In liver tissue, the serine biosynthetic pathway is regulated in response to dietary and hormonal changes. Of the three synthetic enzymes, the properties of 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (3- PGDH) and phosphoserine phosphatase are the best documented. Hormonal factors such as glucagon and corticosteroids also influence 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (3- PGDH) and phosphoserine phosphatase activities in interactions dependent upon the diet. L-serine plays a central role in cellular proliferation. L-Serine is the predominant source of one-carbon groups for the de novo synthesis of purine nucleotides and deoxythymidine monophosphate. It has long been recognized that, in cell cultures, L-serine is a conditional essential amino acid, because it cannot be synthesized in sufficient quantities to meet the cellular demands for its utilization. In recent years, L-serine and the products of its metabolism have been recognized not only to be essential for cell proliferation, but also to be necessary for specific functions in the central nervous system. The findings of altered levels of serine and glycine in patients with psychiatric disorders and the severe neurological abnormalities in patients with defects of L-serine synthesis underscore the importance of L-serine in brain development and function 6).
Figure 1. Serine biosynthesis
Figure 2. Sphingolipid biosynthetic pathway
(A) L-Serine and palmitoyl-CoA are condensed by serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT) to form 3-keto-sphinganine, which is reduced to sphinganine (SA). Then, sphinganine (SA) is N-acylated to form dihydroceramide (DHCer) and desaturated to form ceramide (Cer). In addition, ceramide (Cer) is converted to sphingosine (SO) and subsequently phosphorylated to generate sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) by the degradative pathway.
(B) Sphingoid bases generated by serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT), which uses not only L-Serine but also L-Alanine or Glycine as a substrate and synthesizes atypical 1-deoxysphingolipids (doxSLs). Because of the lack of the C1 hydroxyl group, 1-deoxysphingolipids (doxSLs) can neither be converted to complex sphingolipids nor degraded by the degradative pathway.
These results indicate that 1-deoxysphingolipids (doxSLs) are generated under conditions of imbalance between L-Alanine and L-Serine in nonmalignant cells and tissues, suggesting a possible role of 1-deoxysphingolipids (doxSLs) in the pathobiology of L-Serine deficiency disorders and other diseases involving an increased ratio of L-Alanine to L-Serine in serum and/or tissues.
Thus, understanding of molecular interactions between 1-deoxysphingolipids (doxSLs) and cellular components, and their consequences, is expected to facilitate the development of therapeutic strategies against the cellular damage evoked by L-Serine deficiency and other metabolic disorders.[Source 8)]
L-Serine is synthesized de novo from a glycolytic intermediate, 3-phosphoglycerate, through three catalytic steps known as the phosphorylated pathway 9). The first step in this pathway is catalyzed by 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (3- PGDH) 10). Phosphohydroxypyruvate is metabolized to phosphoserine by phosphohydroxypyruvate aminotransferase and, finally, phosphoserine is converted into L-serine by phosphoserine phosphatase. Humans with mutated 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (3- PGDH) have lower levels of free L-Serine in the plasma and in cerebrospinal fluid. These L-Serine-deficient patients exhibit severe neurological symptoms, including congenital microcephaly, psychomotor retardation, and intractable seizures 11). In addition to these data from humans with 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (3- PGDH) deficiency, animal study demonstrated that conventional d-3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase knock-out mice display severe consequences of embryonic development, such as brain malformation with overall growth retardation, and die after embryonic day 13.5 12). These human and mouse studies highlighted the absolute necessity of L-Serine, synthesized de novo via the phosphorylated pathway, for embryonic viability and nervous system development. In addition, recent functional genomic studies showed that de novo biosynthesis of L-Serine plays a crucial role in invasiveness, malignant transformation, and proliferation of certain types of cancer 13). Many cancer cells consume serine in preference to glycine 14). Cancer cells selectively consumed exogenous serine, which was converted to intracellular glycine and one-carbon units for building nucleotides 15). Restriction of exogenous glycine or depletion of the glycine cleavage system did not impede proliferation. In the absence of serine, uptake of exogenous glycine was unable to support nucleotide synthesis. Indeed, higher concentrations of glycine inhibited proliferation. Under these conditions, glycine was converted to serine, a reaction that would deplete the one-carbon pool. Providing one-carbon units by adding formate rescued nucleotide synthesis and growth of glycine-fed cells. L-Serine also acts on pyruvate kinase M2 as an allosteric effector and supports aerobic glycolysis, which is a metabolic hallmark of cancer cells 16). These reports provide unexpected evidence that enhanced L-Serine availability in the body is involved in intrinsic metabolic reprogramming of cancer cells 17) and that nucleotide synthesis and cancer cell proliferation are supported by serine—rather than glycine—consumption 18).
Malignant development is accompanied by genetic changes in cancer cells that drive abnormal proliferation, growth, survival, and invasion. Each of these phenotypes is supported by changes in cellular metabolism, and several metabolic enzymes have been identified as oncogenes or tumor suppressors 19). Although alterations in glucose and glutamine metabolism are central to metabolic transformation 20), recent studies have focused on the role of the nonessential amino acids serine and glycine in supporting tumor growth 21). In addition to their role in protein synthesis, serine and glycine contribute to anabolic pathways important for the generation of glutathione, nucleotides, phospholipids, and other metabolites 22) (see Figure 3). The requirement for intracellular serine and glycine for the support of cell growth and division is therefore clear. However, how cancer cells obtain these nutrients (uptake versus biosynthesis) and how they metabolize them remains to be fully elucidated. Mechanistic insight into this question will significantly enhance our ability to target serine/glycine metabolism for therapeutic gain.
Figure 3. Intracellular serine and glycine metabolism
Footnotes: 1‐C; one carbon unit transferred to and from the tetrahydrofolate (THF) cycle.
Abbreviations: R‐5‐P = ribose 5‐phosphate; PPP = Pentose Phosphate Pathway; SSP = Serine synthesis pathway.[Source 23)]
Figure 4. Nucleotide synthesis and cancer cell proliferation are supported by serine rather than glycine
Amplification of 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (3- PGDH), the first enzyme of the de novo serine synthesis pathway, has been found in breast cancers and melanomas 25). Many tumor cells, however, remain highly dependent on uptake of exogenous serine 26), suggesting that in these cells, de novo serine synthesis alone cannot support the requirements for proliferation. A recent study showed that glycine uptake is correlated with rapid proliferation 27); this contrasts with other studies showing that excess dietary glycine has an inhibitory effect on tumorigenesis in multiple in vivo models 28). Another study suggests that cancer cells fail to consume glycine when serine is plentiful 29).
The present lack of clarity is due, at least in part, to the complexity of serine and glycine metabolism, which can be carried out by mitochondrial and cytoplasmic pathways 30), both of which are upregulated in cancer 31). Serine can be converted to glycine by serine hydroxymethyl transferase (cytoplasmic, SHMT1; mitochondrial, SHMT2), a reaction that yields one-carbon units, which enter the tetrahydrofolate (THF) cycle and are critical for nucleotide synthesis. Glycine can also be cleaved by the mitochondrial glycine cleavage system to yield one-carbon units that are transferred to the THF cycle 32) (see Figure 3). Amplification of GLDC (a component of the glycine cleavage system) in cancers 33) suggests that this pathway is an important source of one-carbon units. In addition to cleavage, glycine can also be converted into serine by SHMT1 and SHMT2. Taken together, these reactions allow serine and glycine to be metabolized into the same set of metabolic precursors, suggesting that serine and glycine may be used interchangeably and may be equally effective in supporting proliferation (Figure 3).
In this study 34) the authors demonstrated that exogenous glycine cannot substitute for serine for the support of cancer cell proliferation. Tracking the intracellular fate of exogenous serine and glycine showed that in the absence of exogenous serine, glycine does not enter the one-carbon cycle, but is converted into serine, a process that consumes rather than produces one-carbon units and prevents nucleotide synthesis (see Figure 4). Consistent with this, the authors show that the inability of cells to grow in glycine could be rescued by addition of formate, which directly supplements the one-carbon pool for nucleotide synthesis.
Serine deficiency disorders are caused by a defect in one of the three synthesizing enzymes of the L-serine biosynthesis pathway 35). Serine deficiency disorders give rise to a neurological phenotype with psychomotor retardation, microcephaly and seizures in newborns and children or progressive polyneuropathy in adult patients. There are three defects that cause serine deficiency of which 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (3-PGDH) deficiency, the defect affecting the first step in the pathway, has been reported most frequently. The other two disorders in L-serine biosynthesis phosphoserine aminotransferase deficiency and phosphoserine phosphatase deficiency have been reported only in a limited number of patients 36). The biochemical hallmarks of all three disorders are low concentrations of serine in cerebrospinal fluid and plasma. Prompt recognition of affected patients is important, since serine deficiency disorders are treatable causes of neurometabolic disorders. The use of age-related reference values for serine in CSF and plasma can be of great help in establishing a correct diagnosis of serine deficiency, in particular in newborns and young children.
Foods high in serine
Table 1. Serine foods (ordered from highest to low)
Value Per 100 grams
|Egg, white, dried, stabilized, glucose reduced||6.16|
|Egg, white, dried, powder, stabilized, glucose reduced||6.08|
|Egg, white, dried, flakes, stabilized, glucose reduced||5.67|
|Egg, white, dried||5.59|
|Soy protein isolate||4.59|
|Soy protein isolate, potassium type||4.59|
|Egg, whole, dried||3.77|
|Egg, whole, dried, stabilized, glucose reduced||3.66|
|Soy protein concentrate, produced by alcohol extraction||3.37|
|Soy protein concentrate, produced by acid wash||3.37|
|Seaweed, spirulina, dried||3|
|Beverages, Protein powder soy based||2.96|
|Egg, yolk, dried||2.81|
|Seeds, sesame flour, low-fat||2.73|
|Soy flour, defatted||2.73|
|Soy meal, defatted, raw||2.6|
|Gelatins, dry powder, unsweetened||2.6|
|Snacks, pork skins, plain||2.6|
|Peanut flour, defatted||2.57|
|Fish, cod, Atlantic, dried and salted||2.56|
|Seeds, cottonseed flour, low fat (glandless)||2.49|
|Snacks, pork skins, barbecue-flavor||2.48|
|Seeds, cottonseed meal, partially defatted (glandless)||2.46|
|Whale, beluga, meat, dried (Alaska Native)||2.42|
|Cheese, parmesan, shredded||2.4|
|Soybeans, mature seeds, raw||2.36|
|Soybeans, mature seeds, dry roasted||2.29|
|Seeds, sunflower seed flour, partially defatted||2.27|
|Tofu, dried-frozen (koyadofu)||2.26|
|Tofu, dried-frozen (koyadofu), prepared with calcium sulfate||2.26|
|Mollusks, whelk, unspecified, cooked, moist heat||2.22|
|Seeds, sesame flour, partially defatted||2.2|
|Cheese, parmesan, hard||2.07|
|Seeds, cottonseed flour, partially defatted (glandless)||2.05|
|Soybeans, mature seeds, roasted, salted||2.04|
|Soybeans, mature seeds, roasted, no salt added||2.04|
|Soy flour, full-fat, roasted||2.02|
|Soy flour, full-fat, raw||2|
|Leavening agents, yeast, baker’s, active dry||1.98|
|Milk, dry, nonfat, regular, without added vitamin A and vitamin D||1.97|
|Milk, dry, nonfat, regular, with added vitamin A and vitamin D||1.97|
|Milk, dry, nonfat, calcium reduced||1.93|
|Milk, dry, nonfat, instant, with added vitamin A and vitamin D||1.91|
|Milk, dry, nonfat, instant, without added vitamin A and vitamin D||1.91|
|Fish, caviar, black and red, granular||1.9|
|Gelatin desserts, dry mix, reduced calorie, with aspartame, added phosphorus, potassium, sodium, vitamin C||1.88|
|Gelatin desserts, dry mix, reduced calorie, with aspartame, no added sodium||1.88|
|Lupins, mature seeds, raw||1.87|
|Milk, buttermilk, dried||1.87|
|Seeds, safflower seed meal, partially defatted||1.79|
|Seeds, hemp seed, hulled||1.71|
|Cheese, parmesan, grated||1.69|
|Seeds, sesame flour, high-fat||1.68|
|Seeds, pumpkin and squash seed kernels, dried||1.67|
|Peanut flour, low fat||1.67|
|Seeds, pumpkin and squash seed kernels, roasted, without salt||1.65|
|Seeds, pumpkin and squash seed kernels, roasted, with salt added||1.65|
|Nuts, butternuts, dried||1.64|
|Pork, cured, bacon, cooked, microwaved||1.63|
|Seeds, cottonseed kernels, roasted (glandless)||1.63|
|Nuts, mixed nuts, oil roasted, without peanuts, without salt added||1.62|
|Nuts, mixed nuts, oil roasted, without peanuts, with salt added||1.62|
|Cheese, parmesan, dry grated, reduced fat||1.61|
|Beef, round, top round roast, boneless, separable lean only, trimmed to 0″ fat, select, cooked, roasted||1.52|
|Beef, round, eye of round roast, boneless, separable lean only, trimmed to 0″ fat, select, cooked, roasted||1.51|
|Seeds, watermelon seed kernels, dried||1.51|
|Snacks, soy chips or crisps, salted||1.5|
|Beef, loin, top sirloin filet, boneless, separable lean only, trimmed to 0″ fat, select, cooked, grilled||1.5|
5 Health Benefits of L-Serine + Dosage & Side Effects
L-serine is an amino acid with a range of crucial roles. As a supplement, people use it for brain protection, mental health, and skin appearance. However, the available clinical research is scarce. Read on to learn more about L-serine roles, potential benefits, dosage, and side effects.
What is L-Serine?
L-serine is an amino acid that plays an important role in the production of proteins, DNA, and cell membranes. It is a nonessential amino acid, meaning that we do not have to obtain it from the diet. The body can make enough serine on its own.
However, because of the diverse roles that serine plays in the body, dietary intake may offer certain benefits
Today, L-serine is being researched to treat brain diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), chronic fatigue syndrome, and Alzheimer’s disease
Serine is often taken with other amino acids such as glycine, arginine, tyrosine, and leucine. In patients suffering from seizures, glycine and serine are sometimes given together for their synergistic effects
Two Different Forms
Serine is produced from the amino acid glycine and can exist as L-serine and D-serine. L-serine is still being researched in clinical trials for its effects but nutritional supplements are readily available.
D-serine is a neurotransmitter that plays a central role in information processing. Although it can also be purchased as a supplement, D-serine has poor absorption when taken orally. Scientists are researching it for schizophrenia
L-serine is not FDA approved to treat any conditions, but it’s regarded as safe to consume as an additive
Food Sources and Forms of Supplementation
The following high-protein foods are good sources of L-serine:
- Soy protein
L-serine can also be taken as a supplement in powder form or as a capsule. It is also used topically on the skin
Phosphatidylserine is a common supplement formed from L-serine and 2 fatty acid molecules. It can provide similar effects as a basic L-serine supplement. Although their effects are related, this article focuses on the benefits of L-serine alone
Mechanism of Action
L-serine plays a role in forming of all five bases of DNA and RNA (adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine, and uracil) .
L-serine is converted to D-serine by an enzyme called serine-racemase. D-serine is mainly found in the brain. It assists in stimulating the nervous system and is important in cell communication within the brain .
L-serine and D-serine are both important in the process of making tryptophan in the body. Tryptophan produces serotonin, which ultimately affects mood, digestion, and sleep .
L-serine also increases levels of creatine, which promotes muscle mass in the body
It is also involved in the production of antibodies (immunoglobulins) and is a precursor to other amino acids like glycine and cysteine
Phosphatidylserine, formed by L-serine and 2 fatty acid molecules, is one of the main neuroprotective agents in nerve cells. It is vital for the maintenance of brain health
Health Benefits of L-Serine
No valid clinical evidence supports the use of L-serine for any of the conditions in this section. Below is a summary of up-to-date animal studies, cell-based research, or low-quality clinical trials which should spark further investigation. However, you shouldn’t interpret them as supportive of any health benefit.
1) Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)
L-serine has recently been studied for the treatment of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). ALS is caused by the breakdown of nerve cells and ultimately results in fatal muscle weakness.
In a study of 20 patients with ALS, L-serine supplementation for 6 months slowed the progression of the disease
In test tubes, L-serine inhibited the activity of faulty amino acids that are involved in the development of ALS .
The available evidence doesn’t allow for solid conclusions; further research is needed.
Fix Your Brain Fog and Enhance Cognition
Our e-book, How To Solve Procrastination, Forgetfulness and Lack of Mental Clarity Using Your Genes has helped hundreds of people get rid of their brain fog and improve their cognitive function. Learn which genes are key players in cognitive function and what you can do to optimize them.UPGRADE MY BRAIN
2) Chronic Fatigue Syndrome
Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) causes symptoms such as extreme tiredness, pain, and discomfort. According to preliminary research, these symptoms may be linked to low blood levels of serine
Supplementing L-serine in 28 patients with chronic fatigue syndrome significantly reduced physical symptoms after 15 weeks of treatment
3) Symptoms of HSAN1
HSAN1 is a brain disease that causes the loss of sensation in the legs and feet.
In a study of 14 patients with HSAN1, taking L-serine for 10 weeks prevented progression of the disease. It also improved sensation in the legs
4) Sleep Improvement
Small doses of L-serine before sleep may improve sleep quality.
In a study of 53 participants who had difficulty sleeping, ingesting L-serine for 4 nights improved sleep quality and the ability to fall asleep
Some patients suffering from seizures have low levels of L-serine. One week of L-serine treatment reduced seizures, involuntary movements, muscle spasms, and uncontrolled muscle stiffness in two patients
On the other hand, L-serine may not be completely effective in certain seizure-inducing diseases such as 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase deficiency
Well-designed trials should investigate the safety and efficacy of L-serine for different types of seizures.
Animal and Cellular Research (Lacking Evidence)
No clinical evidence supports the use of L-serine for any of the conditions listed in this section. Below is a summary of the existing animal and cell-based studies. They should guide further investigational efforts but should not be interpreted as supportive of any health benefit.
6) Alzheimer’s Disease
L-serine reduced the buildup of proteins (neurofibrillary tangles) in the brain that are associated with Alzheimer’s disease. Cell studies show that these tangles can be reduced through exposure to L-serine
In monkeys with neurofibrillary tangles, 4 months of daily L-serine intake greatly reduced the number of proteins associated with Alzheimer’s disease
D-serine may also play a role in identifying Alzheimer’s disease. Low levels of D-serine are found in some patients with Alzheimer’s
However, other studies have found no significant difference in the amount of D-serine in brains with Alzheimer’s compared to those without .
7) Brain Blood Flow
Ischemia occurs when there is a shortage of blood supply to any organ in the body. In animal and cell-based studies, scientists examined the potential of L-serine to promote blood flow in the brain and protect the nerve cells.
8) Skin Protection
In hairless mice, the application of L-serine-based cream slowed the appearance of wrinkles and decreased the presence of pre-existing wrinkles caused by UV damage .
In one study on rats, L-serine reduced depression by increasing the levels of both L-serine and D-serine in the brain.