Our food with low vitamin K is a healthy and nutritious alternative to your everyday meal. Our vegetarian choices are all made with a 100% plant base that provides you with the most wholesome nutrition possible.
Food With Low Vitamin K
To help manage your diet, choose from a variety of vegetables low in vitamin K. Food containing the lowest amounts of vitamin K — less than 14 percent DV, per 1-cup serving, include:
- Turnips (raw or cooked) — 0.1 micrograms
- Beets (raw or cooked) — 0.3 micrograms
- Sweet Corn (raw or cooked) — 0.5 micrograms
- Onion (raw or cooked) — 1 microgram per 1 medium onion
- Rutabagas (raw or cooked) — 0.5 micrograms
- Pumpkin (cooked) — 2 micrograms
- Winter squash(cooked) — 2 micrograms
- Summer squash (cooked) — 3 micrograms
- Eggplants (cooked) — 3 micrograms
- Bamboo shoots (raw or canned) — 0 micrograms
- Mushrooms (raw or cooked) — 0 micrograms
- Tomatoes (cooked) — 7 micrograms
- Tomatoes (raw) — 14 micrograms
- Cucumbers (raw) — 17 micrograms
- Iceberg lettuce (raw) — 17.4 micrograms
Fruits Low in Vitamin K
You can also enjoy many fruits low in vitamin K that will not significantly impact your PT/INR levels. Fruits that contain a minimal amount — less than 3 percent DV — of vitamin K per cup include :
- Watermelon — 0.2 micrograms
- Litchis — 0.8 micrograms
- Bananas — 0.6 micrograms
- Pineapple — 1.2 micrograms
- Apples — 4 micrograms per fruit
- Nectarines — 3 micrograms per fruit
- Strawberries — 3 micrograms
- Peaches — 4 micrograms per fruit
Limit or avoid citrus fruits and use caution when eating blueberries, mangoes and pomegranate, which can affect PT/INR.
Grains Low in Vitamin K
All grain products contain very little or no vitamin K. White rice, plain pasta, whole-wheat bread and quinoa can be good choices because they do not provide any vitamin K to your diet. Some examples of starches low in vitamin K — 1 percent DV or less — per 1-cup serving, are:
- Brown rice — 0.4 micrograms
- Couscous — 0.2 micrograms
- Cornmeal — 0.4 milligrams
- Bulgar — 0.9 milligrams
- Pearl Barley — 1.3 micrograms
- Millet — 0.5 micrograms
Foods to Limit or Avoid
Some foods, especially green leafy vegetables, contain a very high content —over 200 to 450 percent DV — of vitamin K per half-cup serving. You should limit these foods to one serving a day and not combine them with other foods containing vitamin K on your Coumadin diet. Some of these foods include:
- Boiled kale —442 percent DV
- Boiled spinach — 370 percent DV
- Boiled collard greens —332 percent DV
- Boiled Swiss chard — 239 percent DV
Some other foods that you should limit to no more than three servings per day contain 40 to 100 percent of your DV per cup:
- Raw endive — 96 percent DV
- Boiled Brussels sprouts — 91 percent DV
- Raw broccoli — 77 percent DV
- Romaine lettuce — 40 percent DV
If you eat more foods rich in vitamin K, or change your diet in any way, you should check your blood more frequently and work with your doctor to find the right dose of warfarin for you.
What Are Foods Low in Vitamin K?
People who have certain medical conditions or those who are taking medications such as blood thinners might be advised to maintain a diet that is low in vitamin K. Some of the foods that are low in this vitamin include bananas, potatoes, and lima beans. Many breakfast cereals do not contain this vitamin at all. Other foods low in vitamin K are artichokes, carrots, corn, and turnips. Before a person makes any significant dietary changes, a medical professional should be consulted to verify that eating foods low in this vitamin is recommended on an individual basis.
Many fruits are low in vitamin K. Bananas, boysenberries, and black currants contain almost none, while dates, figs, cranberries, and cherries are also low in it. Most citrus fruits, such as lemons, limes, and oranges, normally contain low levels as well. Blueberries and blackberries are relatively high in vitamin K and should be avoided by people who must restrict the use of this vitamin.
Several vegetables, including white potatoes and sweet potatoes, do not contain much of this vitamin. Cucumbers are low as long as they are peeled before being eaten. Lima beans and green peppers also are good choices for people who are trying to reduce their vitamin K intake. Leafy green vegetables, such as kale, should be avoided unless approved by a healthcare professional. Salads are popular staples for those who need to reduce vitamin K intake and might include raw foods such as iceberg lettuce, tomatoes, carrots, radishes, and mushrooms.
Most grains are low in vitamin K, so most breakfast cereals are safe. When a person is in doubt, all food labels should be carefully examined. Most varieties of flour and cornmeal don’t contain it. Cooked dried beans are healthy choices, as are red or yellow onions. Most types of seafood are either low or completely free from vitamin k.
Before a person begins a diet of foods low in vitamin K, a visit to the medical professional is essential. Each person has unique dietary needs, and the healthcare provider likely will prescribe a specific dietary plan based on the individual health needs of a particular patient. A specific amount of vitamin K intake each day normally will be prescribed based on blood test results the patient’s needs. A nutritionist or dietitian can help the patient devise a healthy diet, especially until the patient becomes comfortable knowing which foods are best for his or her diet.
Vitamin K Deficiency
Vitamin K deficiency is most common in infants, especially those who are breastfed. The deficiency can cause bleeding; therefore, all newborns should be given a vitamin K injection.
- Bleeding, the main symptom, can be life threatening in newborns.
- Blood tests to check how quickly blood clots can confirm the diagnosis.
- All newborns should be given a vitamin K injection.
- Vitamin K supplements taken by mouth or injected under the skin can correct the deficiency.
Vitamin K has two forms:
- Phylloquinone: This form occurs in plants and is consumed in the diet. It is absorbed better when it is consumed with fat. Phylloquinone is not toxic.
- Menaquinone: This form is produced by bacteria in the intestine, but only small amounts of it are produced. In some countries, this form is used for supplementation.
(See also Overview of Vitamins.)
Vitamin K is necessary for the synthesis of the proteins that help control bleeding ( clotting factors) and thus for the normal clotting of blood. It is also needed for healthy bones and other tissues.
Vitamin K, like vitamins A, D, and E, is a fat-soluble vitamin, which dissolves in fat and is best absorbed when eaten with some fat. Good sources of vitamin K include green leafy vegetables (such as collards, spinach, and kale) and soybean and canola oils.
Vitamin K deficiency can cause hemorrhagic disease of the newborn, characterized by a tendency to bleed. A vitamin K injection is usually given to newborns to protect them from this disease. Breastfed infants who have not received this injection at birth are especially susceptible to vitamin K deficiency, because breast milk contains only small amounts of vitamin K. Hemorrhagic disease is more likely in infants who are breastfed or who have a disorder that impairs fat absorption or a liver disorder. Formulas for infants contain vitamin K. Risk is also increased if the mother has taken antiseizure drugs (such as phenytoin), anticoagulants (which make blood less likely to clot), or certain antibiotics.
Did You Know…
|Newborns are at risk of vitamin K deficiency, because they do not get enough vitamin K before birth and because they cannot synthesize vitamin K on their own yet.|
In healthy adults, vitamin K deficiency is uncommon because many green vegetables contain vitamin K and bacteria in the intestine produce vitamin K.
If people have vitamin K deficiency, taking warfarin or related anticoagulants interfere with the synthesis of clotting factors (which help blood clot) and can make bleeding more likely or make it worse. Anticoagulants are given to people with conditions that increase the risk of blood clots. These conditions include having to stay in bed (for example, because of an injury or illness), recovering from surgery, and having atrial fibrillation (an abnormal, irregular heart rhythm). People who take warfarin need to have blood tests periodically to check how quickly their blood clots.
Causes of Vitamin K Deficiency
Vitamin K deficiency can result from the following:
- Lack of vitamin K in the diet
- A very low fat diet because vitamin K is best absorbed when eaten with some fat
- Disorders that impair fat absorption and that thus reduce the absorption of vitamin K (such as blockage of the bile ducts or cystic fibrosis)
- Certain drugs, including antiseizure drugs, and some antibiotics
- Consumption of large amounts of mineral oil, which may reduce the absorption of vitamin K
Newborns are prone to vitamin K deficiency because of the following:
- Only small amounts of vitamin K pass from the mother to the fetus during pregnancy.
- During the first few days after birth, the newborn’s intestine has not yet acquired bacteria to produce vitamin K.
Symptoms of Vitamin K Deficiency
The main symptom of vitamin K deficiency is bleeding (hemorrhage)—into the skin (causing bruises), from the nose, from a wound, in the stomach, or in the intestine. Sometimes bleeding in the stomach causes vomiting with blood. Blood may be seen in the urine or stool, or stools may be tarry black.
In newborns, life-threatening bleeding within or around the brain may occur.
Having a liver disorder increases the risk of bleeding, because clotting factors are made in the liver.
Vitamin K deficiency may also weaken bones.
Diagnosis of Vitamin K Deficiency
- Blood tests
Doctors suspect vitamin K deficiency when abnormal bleeding occurs in people with conditions that put them at risk.
Blood tests to measure how quickly blood clots are done to help confirm the diagnosis. Knowing how much vitamin K people consume helps doctors interpret results of these blood tests. Sometimes the vitamin K level in the blood is measured.
Treatment of Vitamin K Deficiency
- For newborns, a vitamin K injection
- For the deficiency, vitamin K by mouth or by injection
A vitamin K injection in the muscle is recommended for all newborns to reduce the risk of bleeding within the brain after delivery.
If vitamin K deficiency is diagnosed, vitamin K is usually taken by mouth or given by injection under the skin. If a drug is the cause, the dose of the drug is adjusted or extra vitamin K is given.
The Good food list for people on anticoagulants (foods low in vitamin k)
VEGETABLES FRUITS PROTEIN OTHER
Navy Beans Sauerkraut
In general: Foods with Vitamin K: Daily intake should have about the same portion size most days of the week (if at all). See list below for a more in depth measure.
• Dark leafy greens
Vitamin K content of different foods, from high to low
830 – 800 mcg 50 – 10 mcg 10 – 1 mcg
Swiss Chard Soybeans Tomato Sauce, Canned
Kale Beans, Snap Tomatoes
540 – 500 Mcg Cabbage, Red Lima Beans
Parsley Avocados Blueberries
440 – 400 Mcg Asparagus Meatloaf
Brussel Sprouts Soybeans, Dry Roasted Mackerel
Spinach Peas Cowpeas (Black Eyed
380 – 300 Mcg Pickles, Dill Apricots
Purslane Kiwifruit French Fries
270 – 200 Mcg Sauerkraut Tomato Juice
Broccoli Pea Pods Sweet Potatoes
Turnip Greens Abalone Potatoes
Watercress Lentils Spaghetti Sauce
Endive Kidney Beans Cheddar Cheese
Lettuce Leaves Cucumber Grapes
Spring Onions Carrots Squash
170 – 100 Mcg Peppers, Sweet Oatmeal, Instant
Mustard Greens Pumpkin Bread
Cabbage Leeks Peaches
Lettuce, Butterhead Artichoke Beets
Pistachio Nuts Celery Soy Milk
Coleslaw Plums Tofu
Miso Egg Yolk
Peanut Butter Chili Con Carne
Coffee Bran Flakes
Cauliflower Puffed Wheat
Pinto Beans Onions
Potato Chips Navy Beans